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- Blue Highlight is guideline
- Black letter is my idea
- Gray highlight is references include abstract in there paper
Topic : An exploration at the impact of routine maternal infant separation
for 6 hours following birth in Thailand
Module code:
SID No:
Abstract
Your abstract should be a concise, comprehensive summary of your proposal to enable the reader to gain an understanding of the proposed project. Begin with a general statement about the research problem the proposal seeks to address and then state the research question and summarise the methodology and a brief description of the Systematic Review protocol. The length of the abstract should be between 100-250 words which are not included in the total word count
Introduction
In this section you will need to provide the reader with the background and context for your research including the reason why you think the research should be undertaken (rationale). The rationale is likely to be work related but you will also need to place the research problem within a wider socio-political context. Some discussion of how you envisage your research being used in terms of developing policy and practice within your area of work should also be included in this section. For example, if you were proposing to carry out research on drug users you may wish to use the results to develop more effective treatment programmes. Before writing this section you should carefully consider the following:
??What is the context of the research question/problem?
??What have others said about the research question/problem? - this is not the same as a literature review but you may find it useful to refer to one or two sources which have helped you to identify your research question.
??Where, when and who are you studying (the research population – e.g. people or documentary sources).
??In what way is the proposed study an issue within contemporary policy and practice development?
??How will the research help to improve practice?
??State clearly the research question and/or aim (general statement of intent) and objectives (specific issues to be addressed) of the proposed study.
Research Question
Does early routine separation of mothers and babies following birth have an impact on maternal and infant bonding?
Significances of the Study
Although routine maternal-infant separation is commonly practiced in Thailand (………and else where include referenced) This practice ended in the United Kingdom (when….. may be 1980s need reference) Therefore, much of the literature available was published at this time. There is very limited evidence available that has been pubished more fecently in Thai literature ( add information!!! Include ref )
Objectives of the study
To ascertain the evidence and effects of mother to infant skin interaction between mother and infant in the United Kingdom. In addition to that, it also aims to ensure the traditional aspect of infant-mother separation in Thailand within six hours of birth.
Search/ selection method
What were search terms “interaction” “rooming-in” “bonding” “Maternal-infant” “maternal and newborn ” “ attachment” “separation” “Couplet Care” “bonding” “stress” “anxiety” “oxytocin level” “breastfeeding”
I searched the following databases CINAHL, COCHRANC, GOOGLE SCHOLAR in English language between 2010-2015
Literature Review
Review and evaluate literature central to the research process that is relevant and specific to your research question. A good literature review is far more than a critical appraisal of a series of articles; it should create a structure in which you legitimise carrying out your proposed study. You should consider some of the following questions in reviewing relevant literature:
• How was the literature search process conducted?
• What are the main theoretical perspectives contained within the literature?
• What are the strengths and weaknesses of the literature you have reviewed?
• What are the similarities and differences in the literature?
• Are there any inconsistencies in the literature?
• Are there any gaps in the literature which your research would be addressing?
• Have you identified the interrelationships between previous literature and your proposed study?
• Have you justified any constraints in the review of the literature?
However, in addition an Systematic Review requires discussion relating to a scoping review. This involves a quick and unsystematic search of an electronic database to ensure that there will be sufficient research to include in the. During the scoping review it is also important to ensure that the research question has not already been answered using an up-to-date and valid systematic review. The details of all papers identified in this scoping review are not necessarily reported in your literature to support the proposal but are part of your rationale for supporting the methodology. Part of the scoping review should enable you to determine the nature of the research approach adopted in the field i.e. qualitative/quantitative/mixed methods
I review of the literature used systematic principle in CINAHL, COCHRANC, GOOGLE SCHOLAR for healthcare research in English language between 2010-2015
Methodology
In this section you must carefully consider the different research paradigms. You must show that you have an understanding of the overall research approaches. Your choice and defence of a particular methodology will be based on an epistemology (theory of knowledge) relevant to your research question, rather than personal choice. In the context of an Systematic Review you will need to determine what type of research designs will best address your topic. There is never only one way to study a research question so you must critically analyse philosophies underpinning qualitative and quantitative approaches to justify the appropriateness of your chosen methodology.
• What research paradigm is most appropriate and why have you chosen this particular paradigm?
The reason for select systematic review
Consider : There have been numerous primary research studies already. However, the sample sizes are small. There were conducted in several countries each with different cultures, customs and practice and want to be able to combine these findings.
Research Protocol
A research protocol for a systematic review is a strategic plan which ensures that the evidence obtained enables you to answer the research question as unambiguously as possible and would allow another researcher to replicate the review. It is therefore important for the search process to be explicit and unequivocal. In the research protocol the search strategy, quality appraisal criteria, data collection methods and data synthesis are outlined and justified.
Your review protocol should include the following:
• Criteria for including studies: Describe and justify the type of studies which you would include, e.g. qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, surveys etc. In this section use subheadings to discuss and justify the inclusion and exclusion criteria you will apply to the SR question.e.g. population, intervention, study design, outcomes etc.
• Identification of studies:
Provide a list of search terms. These need to be identified and justified in relation to the research question and scoping review. The list of search terms/keywords should be developed drawing on synonyms and related terms. Each concept identified within the research question should be included in this process
You should detail and justify your electronic database search including which databases (Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, etc), between which years. You should also detail which journals you intend to hand search and if you are going to screen review articles and other bibliographies.
• Study selection: Describe how you intend to handle all the studies that you identify and how you will make a final selection for the review
• Quality assessment: Appraisal of rigour. This section requires you to discuss QA processes in terms of internal and external validity or trustworthiness and its relevance to ensuing good quality data. You should provide details of an appropriate tool for this purpose with a justification for your decision.
• Ethical Appraisal: In this section you should reflect upon what ethical principles you need to consider in relation to the appraisal of the studies for inclusion in the SR. In addition you need to consider what steps you will undertake to ensure your SR is ethically sound.
• Data extraction: Here you should describe and justify what data you will extract e.g. methods, sample, intervention etc and what type of tool you will use to guide the process. An example of the data abstraction tool should be included as an appendix.
Data analysis: Here you should describe how you will handle the data. What you do with the data depends on what you will be able to extract from the individual research articles. You need to consider what type of data is most likely to be found (quantitative or qualitative or both) and the proposed data synthesis and presentation strategy.
Limitations.
It is important that you outline the potential limitations of the proposed study?
Dissemination
It is important to identify how you will share your research findings with others including stating how these can influence practice and/or policy decisions.
Reference list
1 Title: Maternal-infant bonding: a review of literature
• Author: Johnson, Kayla
• Subjects: Mental Health ; Child Behavior ; Breast Feeding
• Is Part Of: International Journal of Childbirth Education, July, 2013, Vol.28(3), p.17(6) [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The quality of the maternal-infant relationship has a significant influence on maternal mental health and infant well-being, development, and adaptation throughout life. Bonding is a unique and long-term emotional tie that begins with the first contact between the mother and infant and continues throughout the postpartum period. Postnatal separation has negative outcomes on the mother-infant bonding process. Mothers who participated in immediate skin-to-skin contact and initiated breastfeeding within two hoursfollowing childbirth were more sensitive to the infant's needs and the child seemed more content at one year. Inadequate mother-infant relationships result in long-term consequences for the child. Poor interactions affect the child's cognitive and socio-emotional development, physical health, and personal relationships. Keywords: mother-infant relationship, synchrony, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact
• Identifier: ISSN: 0887-8625
• Language: English
• Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
2 Title: Social Regulation of the Stress Response in the Transitional Newborn: A Pilot Study
• Author: Elverson, Cynthia Anderson ; Wilson, Margaret E. ; Hertzog, Melody A. ; French, Jeffrey A.
• Subjects: Cortisol ; Feeding ; Holding ; Newborn ; Stress ; Stress response
• Is Part Of: Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 2012, Vol.27(3), pp.214-224 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between caregiver holding and feeding behaviors and the transitional newborn infant’s cortisol response. Behaviors of 46 mothers, fathers, and their term transitional newborn infants were measured with the Index of Mother-Infant Separation(IMIS). Repeated measures of infant salivary cortisol were used to calculate area under the curve. A higher percentage of observations in which motherwas holding infant was related to lower infant total cortisol during the first 6hours after birth (r = -.24, p = .05, one-tailed).
• Identifier: ISSN: 0882-5963 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2011.01.029
• Language: English
• Source: SciVerse ScienceDirect Journals
3 Title: Unstable Maternal Environment, Separation Anxiety, and Heightened CO 2 Sensitivity Induced by Gene-by-Environment Interplay (Repeated Cross-Fostering and CO 2 Sensitivity)
• Author: D'Amato, Francesca R ; Zanettini, Claudio ; Lampis, Valentina ; Coccurello, Roberto ; Pascucci, Tiziana ; Ventura, Rossella ; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano ; Spatola, Chiara A. M ; Pesenti-Gritti, Paola ; Oddi, Diego ; Moles, Anna ; Battaglia, Marco
• Lu, Xin-yun (Editor)
• Subjects: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences ; Genetics And Genomics ; Mental Health ;Physiology ; Neuroscience
• Is Part Of: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18637 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: In man, many different events implying childhoodseparation from caregivers/unstable parental environment are associated with heightened risk for panic disorder in adulthood. Twin data show that the occurrence of such events in childhood contributes to explaining the covariation between separation anxiety disorder, panic, and the related psychobiological trait of CO 2 hypersensitivity. We hypothesized that early interference withinfant-mother interaction could moderate the interspecific trait of response to CO 2 through genetic control of sensitivity to the environment. ; Having spent the first 24 hours after birth with their biological mother, outbred NMRI mice were cross-fostered to adoptive mothers for the following 4 post-natal days. They were successively compared to normally-reared individuals for: number of ultrasonic vocalizations during isolation, respiratory physiology responses to normal air (20%O), CO-enriched air (6% CO), hypoxic air (10%O), and avoidance of CO-enriched environments. ; Cross-fostered pups showed significantly more ultrasonic vocalizations, more pronounced hyperventilatory responses (larger tidal volume and minute volume increments) to CO-enriched air and heightened aversion towards CO-enriched environments, than normally-reared individuals. Enhanced tidal volume increment response to 6%CO was present at 16–20, and 75–90 postnatal days, implying the trait's stability. Quantitative genetic analyses of unrelated individuals, sibs and half-sibs, showed that the genetic variance for tidal volume increment during 6%CO breathing was significantly higher (Bartlett ??=?8.3, p?=?0.004) among the cross-fostered than the normally-reared individuals, yielding heritability of 0.37 and 0.21 respectively. These results support a stress-diathesis model whereby the genetic influences underlying the response to 6%CO increase their contribution in the presence of an environmental adversity. Maternal grooming/licking behaviour, and corticosterone basal levels were similar among cross-fostered and normally-reared individuals. ; A mechanism of gene-by-environment interplay connects this form of early perturbation of infant-mother interaction, heightened CO sensitivity and anxiety. Some non-inferential physiological measurements can enhance animal models of human neurodevelopmental anxiety disorders.
• Identifier: E-ISSN: 1932-6203 ; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018637
• Language: English
• Source: PLoS
4 Title: The Sacred Hour: Uninterrupted Skin-to-Skin Contact Immediately After Birth
• Author: Phillips, Raylene
• Subjects: Birth ; Newborn ; Skin-to-skin ; Breastfeeding
• Is Part Of: Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 2013, Vol.13(2), pp.67-72 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The manner in which a new baby is welcomed into the world during the first hours after birth may have short- and long-term consequences. There is good evidence that normal, term newborns who are placed skin to skin with their mothers immediately after birth make the transition from fetal to newborn life with greater respiratory, temperature, and glucose stability and significantly less crying indicating decreased stress. Mothers who hold their newborns skin to skin after birth have increased maternal behaviors, show more confidence in caring for their babies and breastfeed for longer durations. Being skin to skin with motherprotects the newborn from the well-documented negative effects ofseparation, supports optimal brain development and facilitates attachment, which promotes the infant’s self-regulation over time. Normal babies are born with the instinctive skill and motivation to breastfeed and are able to find the breast and self-attach without assistance when skin-to-skin. When the newborn is placed skin to skin with the mother, nine observable behaviors can be seen that lead to the first breastfeeding, usually within the first hour after birth. Hospital protocols can be modified to support uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth for both vaginal and cesarean births. The first hour of life outside the womb is a special time when a baby meets his or her parents for the first time and a family is formed. This is a once-in-a-lifetime experience and should not be interrupted unless the baby or mother is unstable and requires medical resuscitation. It is a “sacred” time that should be honored, cherished and protected whenever possible.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1527-3369 ; DOI: 10.1053/j.nainr.2013.04.001
• Language: English
5 Title: Parent-infant skin-to-skin contact studies: Parent-infantinteraction and oxytocin levels during skin-to-skin contact after Cesarean section and mother-infant skin-to-skin contact as treatment for breastfeeding problems
• Author: Velandia, Marianne
• Subjects: Medical And Health Sciences ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Skin-To-Skin Contact
• Is Part Of: 2012
• Description: The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of early skin-to-skin contact on maternal, paternal and infantinteraction immediately after Cesarean section and personality profile in mothers. Furthermore, it was to study skin-to-skin contact between mothers and infants as a method to solve severe latch-on breastfeeding problems, even weeks after birth. Methods: (I-III) Thirty-seven healthy infants born to primiparas were randomized to 25 minutes of skin-to-skin contact with either their fathers or mothers after five minutes of skin-to-skin contact with their mothers after birth or a group. The interaction of newborns was recorded on a videotape. Interaction behaviours were compared between the skin-to-skin groups and their controls. Blood samples were taken for analysis of oxytocin with radio-immuno-assay in both mothers and fathers every five minutes for the first 45 minutes after birth and then every 15 minutes, up to two hours after childbirth. The mothers were asked to fill in the Karolinska Scale of Personality (KSP). (IV) 103 healthy mother-infant pairs with severe latch-on problems were randomly assigned to breastfeeding during skin-to-skin contact (SSC-group) or not (control group) after screening for eligibility. Breastfeeding counselling was given to both groups according to a professional standardised model. Mothers completed a self-rating instrument Breastfeeding Emotional Scale (BES) before and after the breastfeeding session mothers were followed up to four months. Results: Infants’ soliciting sounds increased over time (p=0.032). Fathers in skin-to-skin contact performed more soliciting responses than control fathers (p=0.010) (I). Infants in skin-to-skin contact with mothers cried significantly more than infants in skin-to-skin contact with fathers (p=0.002) and girls cried more than boys in skin-to-skin-contact with either parent (p=0.02). Mothers touched girls less than boys (p=0.038). Fathers directed less speech towards girls compared to boys (p=0.042) (II). Girls initiated breastfeeding behaviour earlier than boys in skin-to-skin-contact with either parent (p=0.027). Infants started to breastfeed significantly earlier if they had uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact with mothers during the first 5-30 minutes (p=0.018) (II). Both mothers (p 0.001) and fathers (0.008) showed a slight rise in oxytocin levels after birth irrespective of being in skin-to-skin contact with the infant or not. In mothers, oxytocin infusion alone caused lower scores in detachment (p=0.045) and also in somatic anxiety (p=0.017). In contrast, skin-to-skin contact mothers with oxytocin infusion showed higher scores on somatic anxiety than their controls (p=0.022) (III). The infants with latch-on problems began to breastfeed after significantly shorter time than infants in the control group, (p=0.020) and had more positive breastfeeding experiences according to the BES after the intervention than mothers in the control group (p=0.022) (IV). Conclusion: Skin-to-skin contact immediately after a caesarean section enhances parental-infant interaction, but we did not find differences in mean oxytocin levels between groups in skin-to-skin contact or not. The plasma oxytocin levels in both mothers and fathers showed a slight rise lasting for 60 minutes after birth irrespective of being in skin to skin contact with the infants or not. These data suggest that there might be a period immediately after birth, when both mothers and fathers have high oxytocin levels, which might facilitate bonding to the newborn. Oxytocin infusion may have a potentiated effect on maternal plasma oxytocin levels when in skin-to-skin contact and may contribute to lower self-reported scores on the detachment scale and the somatic anxiety scale in KSP two days post partum. Uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact with the mother accelerates the time point for the infants’ first breastfeeding after birth and skin-to-skin contact can help infants to restore their innate breastfeeding program and achieve satisfactory breastfeeding, even months after birth.
• Identifier: ISBN: 9789174576856
• Language: English
• Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
6 Title: Separation Anxiety, Attachment and Inter-Personal Representations: Disentangling the Role of Oxytocin in the Perinatal Period.(Research Article)
• Author: Eapen, Valsamma ; Dadds, Mark ; Barnett, Bryanne ;Kohlhoff, Jane ; Khan, Feroza ; Radom, Naomi ; Silove, Derrick M.
• Subjects: Pituitary Hormones – Analysis ; Pregnancy – Analysis ;Separation Anxiety – Analysis ; Depression (Mood Disorder) – Analysis
• Is Part Of: PLoS ONE, Sept 17, 2014, Vol.9(9) [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: In this paper, we aimed to assess cross-sectionally and longitudinally associations between disturbances in maternal early attachment experiences, symptoms of separation anxiety and depression and oxytocin plasma levels. We examined a mediational model that tested the hypothesis that anxious attachment style arising from the mothers' early bonding experiences with her own parents was associated with high levels of separation anxiety which, via its impact on depression, was associated with reduced levels of oxytocin in the postnatal period. Data is reported on a structured sample of 127 women recruited during pregnancy from a general hospital antenatal clinic and an initial follow up cohort of 57 women who were re-assessed at 3-months post-partum. We found an association between lower oxytocin level in the post partum period and symptoms of separation anxiety and depression during pregnancy, as well as maternal negative interpersonal representations, upbringing attributes and anxious attachment style. Further meditational analysis revealed that the unique association between anxious attachment and depression is mediated by separation anxiety and that depressed mood mediated the relationship between separation anxiety and oxytocin. In conjunction with evidence from the literature suggesting that lower oxytocin level is associated with bonding difficulties, our findings have significant implications for understanding the biological processes underpinning adverse attachment experiences, negative affect state, and mother-to-infant bonding difficulties.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1932-6203
• Language: English
• Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
7 Title: Disruptions of the mother–infant relationship and stress-related behaviours: Altered corticosterone secretion does not explain everything
• Author: Faturi, Claudia B. ; Tiba, Paula A. ; Kawakami, Suzi E. ;Catallani, Bruna ; Kerstens, Marieke ; Suchecki, Deborah
• Subjects: Stress hyporesponsive period ; Maternal separation ;Maternal deprivation ; Stress ; Behaviour ; HPA axis
• Is Part Of: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2010, Vol.34(6), pp.821-834 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the main neuroendocrine system of response to stress, and an imbalance of this system's activity is believed to be at the core of numerous psychiatric pathologies. During the neonatal period, the glucocorticoid response to stress is maintained at low levels by specific maternal behaviours, which is essential for proper brain development. Effective evaluation of the impact of increased secretion of corticosterone during an essentially anabolic developmental period on adulthood behaviour involved separation of the neonate from its mother for periods ranging from 3 to 24 h. It has been shown that disinhibition of the stress response is achieved by such procedures. The pioneering studies by Seymour Levine set the stage for a prolific and promising field of study that may help neuroscientists unveil the neurobiological underpinnings of stress-related disorders. Based on a series of studies, we propose that maternal separation and maternal deprivation change stress-related behaviours, but that corticosterone seem to be only partially involved in these changes in adulthood. It appears that extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor and neurotransmitter systems may be the primary mediators of these behavioural outcomes.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0149-7634 ; DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.09.002
• Language: English
• Source: SciVerse ScienceDirect Journals
8 Title: Influence of Skin-to-Skin Contact and Rooming-In on Early Mother–Infant Interaction
• Author: Dumas, Louise ; Lepage, Mario ; Bystrova, Ksenia ; Matthiesen, Ann-Sofi ; Welles-Nyström, Barbara ;Widström, Ann-Marie
• Subjects: Breastfeeding ; Skin-To-Skin ; Mother–Infant Interaction ; Rooming-In ; Early Sensitive Period Randomized Controlled Trial ; Video Analysis ; Assessment Of Early Mother–Infant Interaction ; Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative ; Bfhi
• Is Part Of: Clinical Nursing Research, 2013, Vol.22(3), pp.310-336 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The objective of this research was to study influence of birth routines on mother–infant interaction at Day 4. The present research is part of a longitudinal study where mother–infant pairs were randomized by infantlocation and apparel. We intended to assess mother–infant interaction from videos filmed at Day 4. A protocol for the assessment/coding of the affective quality of maternal behaviors indicative of early mother–infant interaction was developed and interculturally validated. Results were compared with birth randomization, as to explain impact of birth practices. Findings indicate that separation and swaddling at birth interfered with mother–infant interaction during a breastfeeding session at Day 4; these mothers significantly demonstrated more roughness in their behaviors with their infants at Day 4. Results also show evidences of a sensitive period for separation after birth. Implications are to encourage immediate and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact at birth, and rooming-in during postpartum, as recommended in World Health Organization/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding .
• Identifier: ISSN: 1054-7738 ; E-ISSN: 1552-3799 ; DOI: 10.1177/1054773812468316
• Source: SAGE Publications
9 Title: Ruminative Thinking as a Predictor of Perceived PostpartumMother–Infant Bonding
• Author: Müller, Dana ; Teismann, Tobias ; Havemann, Beate ;Michalak, Johannes ; Seehagen, Sabine
• Subjects: Depression ; Rumination ; Mother–infant bonding
• Is Part Of: Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2013, Vol.37(1), pp.89-96 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Ruminative thinking has been identified as a vulnerability factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. Furthermore, depressed persons who are high in rumination report more difficulties in intimate relationships. It is still unclear, however, whether rumination is predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms as well as impairments in the mother–infant relationship. Possible associations were investigated in a short-term longitudinal study. Controlling for age, pre- and postnatal depressive symptoms, ruminative thinking during pregnancy was a significant predictor ofmother-reported impairments in the mother–infant relationship. Yet, rumination was not predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0147-5916 ; E-ISSN: 1573-2819 ; DOI:10.1007/s10608-012-9454-7
• Language: English
• Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
10 Title: Developmental consequences and biological significance ofmother-infant bonding
• Author: Mogi, Kazutaka ; Nagasawa, Miho ; Kikusui, Takefumi
• Subjects: Proteins ; Saturated Fatty Acids ; Vasopressins ; Gaba ;Messenger Rna ; Child Abuse ; Glucocorticoids
• Is Part Of: Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, July 1, 2011, Vol.35(5), p.1232(10) [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.08.024 Byline: Kazutaka Mogi, Miho Nagasawa, Takefumi Kikusui Keywords: Dog; Early weaning;Mother-infant bonding; Oxytocin; Ultrasonic vocalization Abbreviations: AVP, arginine vasopressin; AVP1b, 1b type of AVP receptor; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; GABA, gamma amino butyric acid; GalCer, galactosylceramide; GR, glucocorticoid receptor; HPA axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; 5HT, 5-hydoroxytryptamine; 5HT1A, 1A type of 5HT receptor; 5HT1B, 1B type of 5HT receptor; Hz, Hertz = cycle per second; LC, locus coeruleus; mRNA, messenger ribonucleic acid; MBPs, myelin basic proteins; NE, norepinephrine; NeuN, neufonal nuclei-a neuronal specific nuclear protein in vertebrates; OT, oxytocin; OTKO, oxytocin knockout; OTRKO, oxytocin receptor knockout; PVN, paraventricular nucleus; Tuj1, neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin; USV, ultrasonic vocalization Abstract: Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. Here, we review how mutual communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in non-primate species. In rodents, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various pup stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the oxytocin neural system plays a pivotal role in each aspect of the mother-infant bonding, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brain of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding strongly influences offspring sociality. We describe the negative effects of mother-infant bonding deprivation on the neurobehavioral development in rodent offspring, even if weaning occurs in the later lactating period. We also discuss similar effects observed in pigs and dogs, which are usually weaned earlier than under natural conditions. The comparative understanding of the developmental consequences of mother-infant bonding and the underlying mechanisms provide insight into the biological significance of this bonding in mammals, and may help us to understand psychiatric disorders related to child abuse or childhood neglect. Article History: Received 30 June 2010; Revised 25 August 2010; Accepted 26 August 2010
• Identifier: ISSN: 0278-5846
• Language: English
• Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
11 Title:Developmental consequences and biological significance ofmother–infant bonding
• Author: Mogi, Kazutaka ; Nagasawa, Miho ; Kikusui, Takefumi
• Subjects: AVP ; AVP1b ; BDNF ; BrdU ; DNA ; GABA ; GalCer ; GR ; HPA axis ; 5HT ; 5HT1A ; 5HT1B ; Hz ; LC ; mRNA ; MBPs ; NE ; NeuN ; OT ; OTKO; OTRKO ; PVN ; Tuj1 ; USV ; Dog ; Early weaning ; Mother–infant bonding ;Oxytocin ; Ultrasonic vocalization
• Is Part Of: Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 2011, Vol.35(5), pp.1232-1241 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Mother–infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. Here, we review how mutual communication between the mother and infantleads to mother–infant bonding in non-primate species. In rodents,mother–infant bond formation is reinforced by various pup stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the oxytocin neural system plays a pivotal role in each aspect of the mother–infant bonding, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brain of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother–infant bonding strongly influences offspring sociality. We describe the negative effects of mother–infant bondingdeprivation on the neurobehavioral development in rodent offspring, even if weaning occurs in the later lactating period. We also discuss similar effects observed in pigs and dogs, which are usually weaned earlier than under natural conditions. The comparative understanding of the developmental consequences of mother–infant bonding and the underlying mechanisms provide insight into the biological significance of this bonding in mammals, and may help us to understand psychiatric disorders related to child abuse or childhood neglect. Graphical Abstract Research highlights?Mother-infant bonding is formed by mutual communication between mother and infant. ?Oxytocin neural system plays a pivotal role in each aspect of the bond formation. ?Disruption of the bond has negative developmental effects on the offspring sociality. ?Negative effects of early weaning are also observed in pigs and dogs. ?Comparative understanding the bond may help treat or prevent psychiatric disorders.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0278-5846 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.08.024
• Language: English
• Source: ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.)
12 Title: Reasons for Mother–Infant Bed-Sharing: A Systematic Narrative Synthesis of the Literature and Implications for Future Research
• Author: Ward, Trina
• Subjects: Bed-sharing ; Co-sleeping ; Mother–infant bed-sharing ; Infant sleep; Narrative synthesis
• Is Part Of: Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2015, Vol.19(3), pp.675-690[Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Mother–infant bed-sharing has been a common practice for centuries. Understanding the reasons parents choose to bed-share can help tailor safe sleep education. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the international literature on: (1) reasons parents bed-share, (2) the cultural context of bed-sharing, and (3) implications for interventions and future research. The search occurred August–September 2013 via PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyc INFO using the terms: “infant,” “sleep,” “bed shar*,” “co sleep*,” “sleep location,” “sleep practices,” and “sleep arrangements,” alone or in combination. Google Scholar was searched using: “bed share,” “bed sharing,” “co sleep,” and “co sleeping.” Inclusion criteria were: (1) referenced bed-sharing with infants 12 months or younger; (2) provided reasons for bed-sharing; and (3) published between 1990 and 2013. Studies were excluded if they focused on disorders such as epilepsy, breathing disorders, or among multi-gestational infants. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize findings. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. The main themes around bed-sharing based on this synthesis included: (1) breastfeeding, (2) comforting, (3) better/more sleep, (4) monitoring, (5) bonding/attachment, (6) environmental, (7) crying, (8) tradition, (9) disagree with danger, and (10) maternal instinct. Findings suggest that future research should examine parents’ decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice. Public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting. Clinicians should discuss infant sleep environment with each family, along with their motivations for choosing this environment, and work within that framework to address the safety of the sleep environment.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1092-7875 ; E-ISSN: 1573-6628 ; DOI: 10.1007/s10995-014-1557-1
• Language: English
• Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
13 Title: Mother–Infant Synchrony During Preterm Infant Feeding
• Author: Reyna, Barbara ; Pickler, Rita H. ; Brown, Lisa F.
• Subjects: Mother–infant Synchrony ; Mother–infant Interaction ; Synchrony Tool ; Preterm Infant Feeding
• Is Part Of: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 2012, Vol.41(s1), pp.S149-S149 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Identifier: ISSN: 0884-2175 ; E-ISSN: 1552-6909 ; DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2012.01362_43.x
• Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
14 Title: Sex differences in newborn interaction with mother or father during skin-to-skin contact after Caesarean section
• Author: Velandia, Marianne ; Uvnäs-moberg, Kerstin ; Nissen, Eva
• Subjects: Breastfeeding ; Caesarean Section ; Newborn Behaviour ; Sex ;Skin-to-skin Contact
• Is Part Of: Acta Paediatrica, 2012, Vol.101(4), pp.360-367 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: To investigate differences between the breast-seeking and crying behaviour of girls and boys in skin-to-skin contact (SSC) with their mother or their father after Caesarean section as well as the point-in-time for the first breastfeeding and to compare mothers’ and fathers’ interactive behaviour with their newborn girl or boy. Twenty girls and 17 boys were randomized to 25 min of SSC with one or the other parent immediately after birth. The interaction was videotaped. Girls started rooting movements earlier than boys in SSC with either parent (p = 0.027). Infants started to breastfeed significantly earlier if having been in SSC with mothers compared with SSC with fathers during the first 5–30 min (p = 0.018). Girls cried more than boys in SSC with either parent (p = 0.02). Mothers used more touching behaviour towards theirnewborn infant than fathers (p = 0.001). Mothers touched girls less than boys (p = 0.038). Fathers directed less speech towards girls compared with boys (p = 0.042). Early mother–infant SSC immediately after Caesarean section should be promoted until the occurrence of the first breastfeed. If the mother is unable to provide SSC immediately after birth, the father–infant SSC is a valuable alternative because it enhances paternal interaction.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0803-5253 ; E-ISSN: 1651-2227 ; DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02523.x
• Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1 5 Title: Closeness and separation in neonatal intensive care.(Report)
• Author: Flacking, Renee ; Lehtonen, Liisa ; Thomson, Gill ; Axelin, Anna ;Ahlqvist, Sari ; Victoria Hall Moran ; Ewald, Uwe ; Dykes, Fiona
• Subjects: Newborn Infants -- Food And Nutrition ; Child Health ; Child Development ; Parenting
• Is Part Of: Acta Paediatrica, Oct, 2012, Vol.101, p.1032(6) [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Identifier: ISSN: 0803-5253
• Language: English
• Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
16 Title: Rooming-in care of newborn infants
• Author: Mangili, G. ; Formica, I. C.
• Subjects: Newborn Infants
• Is Part Of: Early Human Development, Oct, 2013, Vol.89, p.S23-S24 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3782(13)70086-0 Byline: G. Mangili, I.C. Formica Author Affiliation: Mother & Infant Department, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy
• Identifier: ISSN: 0378-3782
• Language: English
• Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
17 Title: Rooming-in care of newborn infants
• Author: Mangili, G. ; Formica, I. C.
• Subjects: Newborn Infants
• Is Part Of: Early Human Development, Oct, 2013, Vol.89, p.S23-S24 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3782(13)70086-0 Byline: G. Mangili, I.C. Formica Author Affiliation: Mother & Infant Department, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy
• Identifier: ISSN: 0378-3782
• Language: English
• Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
18 Title: Should Mother–Baby Rooming-In be the Standard of Care?
• Author: Beal, A., Judy ; Dalton, Fonseca, Marcia ; Maloney, A., Joyce
• Is Part Of: MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 2015, Vol.40(2), p.74-75 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Identifier: ISSN: 0361-929X ; DOI: 10.1097/NMC.0000000000000122
• Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.
19Title: Immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a C aesarean section: a review of the literature
• Author: Stevens, Jeni ; Schmied, Virginia ; Burns, Elaine ; Dahlen, Hannah
• Subjects: Skin-To-Skin Contact ; Kangaroo Care ;Aesarean/Esarean Section ; Aby Riendly Ealth Nitiative ;Breastfeeding ; Operating Theatre ; Operating Room
• Is Part Of: Maternal & Child Nutrition, 2014, Vol.10(4), pp.456-473[Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The orld ealth rganization and the nited ations nternational hildren's mergency und recommends that mothers and newborns have skin-to-skin contact immediately after a vaginal birth, and as soon as the mother is alert and responsive after a aesarean section. Skin-to-skin contact can be defined as placing a naked infant onto the bare chest of the mother. aesarean birth is known to reduce initiation of breastfeeding, increase the length of time before the first breastfeed, reduce the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding, significantly delay the onset of lactation and increase the likelihood of supplementation. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence on the facilitation of immediate (within minutes) or early (within 1?h) skin-to-skin contact following aesarean section for healthy mothers and their healthy term newborns, and identify facilitators, barriers and associated maternal and newborn outcomes. A range of electronic databases were searched for papers reporting research findings published in nglish between anuary 2003 and ctober 2013. Seven papers met the criteria. This review has provided some evidence that with appropriate collaboration skin-to-skin contact during aesarean surgery can be implemented. Further evidence was provided, albeit limited, that immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a aesarean section may increase breastfeeding initiation, decrease time to the first breastfeed, reduce formula supplementation in hospital, increase bonding and maternal satisfaction, maintain the temperature of newborns and reduce newborn stress.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1740-8695 ; E-ISSN: 1740-8709 ; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12128
• Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
20Title: A review of the breastfeeding literature relevant to osteopathic practice
• Author: Cornall, Denise
• Subjects: Breastfeeding ; Osteopathy ; Paediatrics ; Manual therapy ; Infant
• Is Part Of: International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 2011, Vol.14(2), pp.61-66 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Background A review of the breastfeeding related literature was undertaken to provide background for a qualitative study that explores how osteopaths promote effective breastfeeding. Topics considered relevant to osteopathic practice are presented with the aim of informing and stimulating discussion and further inquiry.
Data Sources and Selection Information is drawn together from the following databases: Lactation Resource Centre of AustralianBreastfeeding Association, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Qualitative and quantitative studies of all designs, government and professional association websites, and conference presentations are included as the aim is to generate a broad background on the biological and psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding that could impact on osteopathic practise. The theoretical literature is included in areas where little research is available.
Conclusions A strong evidence base promotes breastfeeding as important health behaviour for a mother and baby; influenced by many complex and sensitive biopsychosocial factors. The theoretical literature and studies that have investigated the biomechanics ofbreastfeeding provide a rationale for osteopathic treatment to facilitate effective breastfeeding; however little supportive research has been undertaken. Further well designed studies are needed to determine the role that osteopaths might play in supporting a mother–baby dyad to successfully breastfeed.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1746-0689 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijosm.2010.12.003
• Language: English
• Source: SciVerse ScienceDirect Journals
21Title: Reasons for Mother–Infant Bed-Sharing: A Systematic Narrative Synthesis of the Literature and Implications for Future Research
• Author: Ward, Trina
• Subjects: Bed-sharing ; Co-sleeping ; Mother–infant bed-sharing ;Infant sleep ; Narrative synthesis
• Is Part Of: Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2015, Vol.19(3), pp.675-690 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Mother–infant bed-sharing has been a common practice for centuries. Understanding the reasons parents choose to bed-share can help tailor safe sleep education. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the international literature on: (1) reasons parents bed-share, (2) the cultural context of bed-sharing, and (3) implications for interventions and future research. The search occurred August–September 2013 via PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyc INFO using the terms: “infant,” “sleep,” “bed shar*,” “co sleep*,” “sleep location,” “sleep practices,” and “sleep arrangements,” alone or in combination. Google Scholar was searched using: “bed share,” “bed sharing,” “co sleep,” and “co sleeping.” Inclusion criteria were: (1) referenced bed-sharing with infants 12 months or younger; (2) provided reasons for bed-sharing; and (3) published between 1990 and 2013. Studies were excluded if they focused on disorders such as epilepsy, breathing disorders, or among multi-gestational infants. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize findings. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. The main themes around bed-sharing based on this synthesis included: (1) breastfeeding, (2) comforting, (3) better/more sleep, (4) monitoring, (5) bonding/attachment, (6) environmental, (7) crying, (8) tradition, (9) disagree with danger, and (10) maternal instinct. Findings suggest that future research should examine parents’ decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice. Public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting. Clinicians should discuss infant sleep environment with each family, along with their motivations for choosing this environment, and work within that framework to address the safety of the sleep environment.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1092-7875 ; E-ISSN: 1573-6628 ; DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1557-1
• Language: English
• Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
22 Title:Maternal-infant synchrony: An integrated review of the literature
• Author: Baker, Brenda ; McGrath, Jacqueline M
• Subjects: Mother and infant ; Infants--Care ; Pregnant women--Psychological aspects ; Postnatal care ; Depression, Mental
• Is Part Of: Neonatal, Paediatric & Child Health Nursing, Nov 2011, Vol.14(3), p.2-13 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Background A critical review of the literature was conducted to identify current science related to maternal - infant synchrony including: (a) definitions; (b) contributing factors; (c) measurement, and (d) how maternal - infant synchrony contributes to the continuum of the mothering experience. Methods Using the search terms maternal - infant synchrony, maternal -infant interaction and maternal - infant attachment, databases were searched including Medline, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Only English language research and integrated reviews published after 1985 and applicable to maternal populations and infants less than one year of age were included. Studies specific to multiple gestations or infants with congenital anomalies were excluded. Research comparing term and preterm infants was included as prematurity provides a context to study the emergence of neurobehavioural development and effects of dysregulation on maternal - infantsynchrony. Based on the inclusion criteria, 23 published articles were included in this review. Results Numerous overlapping definitions of maternal - infant synchrony were found. Findings clearly identify several positive newborn outcomes related to maternal - infant synchrony, including development of attachment relationships, development of infant language skills and social-emotional competence. Most research on maternal - infant synchrony has been conducted within the context of the behavioural sciences and/or in laboratory settings employing videotaping, analysis and coding of behaviours. Tools to specifically measure maternal - infant synchrony are limited. Conclusion Synchrony is a dynamic, timed relationship that benefits both mother and infant. Synchrony reflects an appropriate fit between maternal and infant behaviour that develops from responsive and sensitive mothering and fosters infant attachment and ultimately social, emotional and self-regulatory growth and trust.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1441-6638
• Source: Informit (RMIT Publishing)
23Title:Pertinence of the self-report mother-to-infant bonding scale in the neonatal unit of a maternityward
• Author: Bienfait, Marjorie ; Maury, Michèle ; Haquet, Armelle ; Faillie, Jean-Luc ; Franc, Nathalie ;Combes, Clémentine ; Daudé, Hubert ; Picaud, Jean-Charles ; Rideau, Aline ; Cambonie, Gilles
• Subjects: Self-report questionnaire ; Mother–infant bond ; Maternity ; Clinical practice ; Mother–child relationship
• Is Part Of: Early Human Development, 2011, Vol.87(4), pp.281-287 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: ObjectiveTo assess the relevance of the self-report Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale(MIBS) to evaluate mother-infant bonding in the neonatal unit of a maternity ward. Material and methodsForty-eight hours after delivery, 78 mothers responded to the MIBS, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), and the Mother's Assessment of the Behavior of her Infant (MABI) questionnaire. They were then interviewed 24h later by a pediatric psychiatrist, who assessed the mother–infant relationship. The neonatology nurses also filled out the MIBS, imagining the mothers' responses, and responded anonymously to questionnaires on the use of the MIBS in their daily practice. ResultsMIBS satisfactorily detected difficulties in mother–child bonding: the area under the ROC curve was 0.93, with a sensitivity of 0.9 and a specificity of 0.8 for a threshold score =2. MIBS was independent of EPDS (r=0.11, p=0.29) and AAQ (r=0.05, p=0.63). However, it was influenced by the infant's behavioral characteristics (r=0.3, p=0.01). MIBS scores of the mothers and nurses showed low correlation (r=0.31, p=0.004) and the item-by-item responses were rarely concordant. Fully 100% of the nurses stated that the MIBS was helpful in evaluating mother–child bonding and 85% of the mothers found it beneficial. ConclusionNew mothers need to express their feelings about their babies, as hospital staff observation of mother–infant interactions is not sufficiently reliable for assessing the attachment process. The self-report MIBS is a useful tool for detecting difficulties in early mother–infant bonding.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0378-3782 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.01.031
• Language: English
• Source: ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.)
24Title: Testing a Family Intervention Hypothesis: The Contribution of Mother-Infant Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) to Family Interaction, Proximity, and Touch
• Author: Feldman, Ruth ; Weller, Aron ; Sirota, Lea ; Eidelman, Arthur I.
• Parke, Ross D. (editor)
• Is Part Of: Journal of Family Psychology, 2003, Vol.17(1), pp.94-107 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: The provision of maternal-infant body contact during a period of maternal separation was examined for its effects on parent-infant and triadic interactions. Participants were 146 three-month-old preterm infants and their parents, half of whom received skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), in the neonatal nursery. Global relational style and micro-patterns of proximity and touch were coded. Following KC, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive, infants showed less negative affect, and family style was more cohesive. Among KC families, maternal and paternal affectionate touch of infantand spouse was more frequent, spouses remained in closer proximity, andinfant proximity position was conducive to mutual gaze and touch during triadic play. The role of touch as a constituent of the co-regulatory parent-infant and triadic systems and the effects of maternal contact on mothering, co-parenting, and family processes are discussed.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0893-3200 ; E-ISSN: 1939-1293 ; DOI: 10.1037/0893-3200.17.1.94
• Language: English
• Source: PsycARTICLES (American Psychological Association)
25 Title:Evidence for a Neuroendocrinological Foundation of Human Affiliation:Plasma Oxytocin Levels across Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period PredictMother-Infant Bonding
• Author: Feldman, Ruth ; Weller, Aron ; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna ; Levine, Ari
• Is Part Of: Psychological Science, 1 November 2007, Vol.18(11), pp.965-970[Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Although research on the neurobiological foundation of socialaffiliation has implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin in processes of maternalbonding in mammals, there is little evidence to support such links in humans. Plasmd oxytocin and cortisol of 62 pregnant women were sampled during the first trimester, last trimester, and first postpartum month. Oxytocin was assayed using enzyme immunoassay, and free cortisol was calculated. After the infants were born, their interactions with their mothers were observed, and the mothers were interviewed regarding their infant-related thoughts and behaviors. Oxytocinwas stable across time, and oxytocin levels at early pregnancy and thepostpartum period were related to a clearly defined set of maternal bondingbehaviors, including gaze, vocalizations, positive affect, and affectionate touch; to attachment-related thoughts; and to frequent checking of the infant. Acrosspregnancy and the postpartum period, oxytocin may play a role in the emergence of behaviors and mental representations typical of bonding in the human mother.
• Identifier: ISSN: 09567976 ; E-ISSN: 14679280
• Language: English
• Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
26Title:Mother-to-Infant Emotional Involvement at Birth
• Author: Figueiredo, Bárbara ; Costa, Raquel ; Pacheco, Alexandra ; Pais, Álvaro
• Subjects: Bonding ; Depression ; Emotional involvement ; Infant ; Mother
• Is Part Of: Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2009, Vol.13(4), pp.539-549 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Objectives To study mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth, namely factors (socio-demographics, previous life events, type of delivery, pain at childbirth, support from partner, infant characteristics, early experiences with the newborn, and mother’s mood) that interfere with the mother’s positive, negative and not clear emotions toward the newborn. Methods The Bonding Scale (an extended Portuguese version of the ‘New Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale’) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administrated during the first after delivery days to 315 mothers recruited at Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital (MJD, Porto, Portugal). Results A worse emotional involvement with the newborn was observed when the mother was unemployed, unmarried, had less than grade 9, previous obstetrical/psychological problems or was depressed, as well as when the infant was female, had neonatal problems or was admitted in the intensive care unit. Lower total bonding results were significantly predicted when the mother was depressed and had a lower educational level; being depressed, unemployed and single predicted more negative emotions toward the infant as well. No significant differences in the mother-to-infant emotional involvement were obtained for events related to childbirth, such as type of delivery, pain and partner support, or early experiences with the newborn; these events do not predict mother’s bonding results either. Conclusion The study results support the need for screening and supporting depressed, unemployed and single mothers, in order to prevent bonding difficulties with the newborn at birth.
• Identifier: ISSN: 1092-7875 ; E-ISSN: 1573-6628 ; DOI: 10.1007/s10995-008-0312-x
• Language: English
• Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
27 Title:The Role of Oxytocin in Mother-Infant Relations: A Systematic Review of Human Studies
• Author: Galbally, Megan ; Lewis, Andrew James ; Ijzendoorn, Marinus Van ; Permezel, Michael
• Subjects: Review;
Attachment;
Bonding;
Mother-Infant Relations;
Oxytocin;
Peptides
• Is Part Of: Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 2011, Vol.19(1), p.1-14 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Background: Oxytocin is associated with the establishment and quality of maternal behavior in animal models. Parallel investigations in humans are now under way. This article reviews the current research examining the role of oxytocin in mother-infant relations, attachment, and bonding in humans. Methods: A systematic search was made of three electronic databases and other bibliographic sources for published research studies that examined oxytocin and mother-infant relations in humans, including attachment, maternal behavior, parenting, and mother-infantrelations. Results: Eight studies were identified, all of which were unique in their methodologies, populations studied, and measures used. Seven studies found significant and strong associations between levels or patterns of oxytocin and aspects of mother-infant relations or attachment. Conclusions: Oxytocin appears to be of crucial importance for understanding mother-infantrelationships. The findings of this review suggest that the pioneering, but preliminary, research undertaken to date is promising and that replication with larger samples is needed. Research that draws on more robust measures of attachment and bonding, as well as improved measures of oxytocin that include both central and peripheral levels, will elucidate the role of oxytocin in human mother-infant relationships. As the production of oxytocin is by no means restricted to mothers, the extension of the oxytocin studies to fathering, as well as to alloparental caregiving, would be an intriguing next step. Background: Oxytocin is associated with the establishment and quality of maternal behavior in animal models. Parallel investigations in humans are now under way. This article reviews the current research examining the role of oxytocin in mother-infant relations, attachment, and bonding in humans. Methods: A systematic search was made of three electronic databases and other bibliographic sources for published research studies that examined oxytocin and mother-infant relations in humans, including attachment, maternal behavior, parenting, and mother-infant relations. Results: Eight studies were identified, all of which were unique in their methodologies, populations studied, and measures used. Seven studies found significant and strong associations between levels or patterns of oxytocin and aspects of mother-infant relations or attachment. Conclusions: Oxytocin appears to be of crucial importance for understanding mother-infant relationships. The findings of this review suggest that the pioneering, but preliminary, research undertaken to date is promising and that replication with larger samples is needed. Research that draws on more robust measures of attachment and bonding, as well as improved measures of oxytocin that include both central and peripheral levels, will elucidate the role of oxytocin in human mother-infant relationships. As the production of oxytocin is by no means restricted to mothers, the extension of the oxytocin studies to fathering, as well as to alloparental caregiving, would be an intriguing next step.
• Publisher: USA: Informa Healthcare
• Creation Date: 2011
• Identifier: ISSN: 1067-3229 ; E-ISSN: 1465-7309 ; DOI: 10.3109/10673229.2011.549771
• Language: English
• Source: Informa Healthcare Journals
28Title:Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity
• Author: Kim, Pilyoung ; Feldman, Ruth ; Mayes, Linda C. ; Eicher, Virginia ; Thompson, Nancy ;Leckman, James F. ; Swain, James E.
• Subjects: Cues; Mothers; Infants; Brain; Empathy; Emotional Development; Nutrition; Parent Child Relationship; Social Development; Correlation; Responses; Stimuli; Diagnostic Tests; BrainHemisphere Functions
• Is Part Of: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2011, Vol.52(8), p.907-915 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Background: Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship betweenbreastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations betweenbreastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods: Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method--exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternalbrain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results: In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions: Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world.
• Identifier: ISSN: 0021-9630 ; DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02406.x
• Language: English
• Source: ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)
29Title:Infant–mother interaction as a predictor of child's chronic health problems
• Author: Mäntymaa, M. ; Puura, K. ; Luoma, I. ; Salmelin, R. ; Davis, H. ; Tsiantis, J. ; Ispanovic-radojkovic, V. ; Paradisiotou, A. ; Tamminen, T.
• Subjects: Mother–infant Interaction ; Physical Health ; Emotional Regulation ; Psychological Stress
• Is Part Of: Child: Care, Health and Development, 2003, Vol.29(3), pp.181-191 [Peer Reviewed Journal]
• Description: Psychological stress is associated with physical illnesses like asthma or infections. For an infant, situations perceived as stressful are highly dependent